Use of Computers in Agriculture

Technological advances have brought about drastic changes in farming and animal husbandry resulting in a tremendous increase in production capacity. The most common use of computers has been in replacing human effort and intervention in traditional farming machinery and other equipment. In addition, even the support functions for farming such as delivery of machinery, fertilizers and production of raw products have been successfully automated. But all these are just the labor-saving, basic uses that have been around even before the turn of the century. If computers have changed the ways of farming, then the Internet has only doubled that pace of change.

Applications of Computing Technologies in Agriculture

In today’s times, agriculture is not just about crop production or livestock farming and associated activities. The challenges brought forth by ecological factors affecting the environment need to be a major consideration for any kind of farming activity. Farmers need to preempt environmental impact due to climate change and this is where modern technology comes to the rescue. In a nutshell, the uses of computers in agriculture include:

– There are software which help in the prediction of weather conditions and estimation of agricultural production.
– Computers are used for record-keeping of information related to costs involved in production, transport, agricultural processes, and in the estimation and calculation of profit and/or loss.
– The Internet aids communication among farmers and between farmers and agriculture experts. This leads to an exchange of knowledge and serves as guidance for farmers to improve production and earn profits.
– Thanks to the use of software technology, farming practices have evolved into those requiring less effort and leading to greater output. Mechanization has reduced human/animal effort and increased the speed and quality of production.

Farmland Assessment
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are being used for developing

The Harmful Influence of the Computer

This simple statement is truer and clearer than one may realize. It is an established fact that nothing interesting is one-sided. Every little thing is this world has its pros and cons; nothing is perfect. This is especially true for electronic devices, prominent among them being the computer. You would be shocked to know that it was categorized as being among the 40 most health-damaging jobs.

Computerization has brought about a revolution in the world. The machine is desperately and heavily used every where – in schools, at home, in companies, institutions, and so on. No doubting its valuable contribution in the fields of space, agriculture, defense, education, etc., but after a period, it does have some negative effects. Some of these influences are as follows.

Effects on Education

As mentioned before, this machine has contributed effectively to the field of education. With the click of a button, one can gather all the possible information they want. However, what is happening today is that even children who cannot read and write yet, are already used to this machine. They develop at a very early age, the habit of playing on the computers for hours on end. Where were the good old days of outdoor play? At the age of four and five, they are already playing games and operating software. While this is good in the sense that it makes children tech-savvy, it is very harmful as well, as they get addicted to this machine and start misusing it over time. The actual interaction between the teacher and students has long gone. The Internet does provide a million online learning courses of course, but in some cases, instead of simplifying the education system, new complications have arisen.

Effects on Health

According to the latest research, this device does not

Use of Computers in Business

The Information Technology (IT) revolution that brought in computers has gone through a variety of stages. The prominent introduction being in the 1960s, when big companies had to store large amounts of data. The revolution of computers initially was used for complex data bases only. However, people realized the many uses that computers had to offer to everyone for daily use. Two major breakthroughs were the introduction of PCs and Mac computers, which of course greatly facilitated businesses and working people in several ways. Apart from that, hardware such as scanners, CDs, floppy drives, and printers, have facilitated the operations of offices in a big way.

All-in-one Device
Earlier, before computers were introduced in businesses, there were multiple devices in offices such as fax machines, typewriters, telefax equipment, stenography equipment, and filing cabinets that were used extensively. Computers successfully replaced all these office tools. The entire office became ‘dematerialized’, which also resulted in the optimum use of the available space.

Accounting and Finance
A computer is a clever accountant. There are countless accounting software that can cleverly record entries and plan finances. These financial software basically increase the accuracy and efficiency of the accounting process. There are also several Internet banking facilities that have come into use in recent times. Such facilities enable people to conduct transactions from their offices, saving them a journey to the bank.

The Internet and the concept of emails has benefited businesses immensely, as information, letters, graphics, applications, and almost any sort of communication can be transmitted from person to person, at distant locations, in a matter of seconds. The Internet also helps in communication to the masses. Stock investors, Forex traders, media companies, financial planners, and company owners rely heavily on electronic communication for instant transfer of information.

Technical Software

Uses Of Computers in Sports

Uses of computers in sports
In Or Out?
Research is being conducted over “smart” soccer balls that are fitted with a microchip, and alert the referee via headset when the ball crosses a line. Such application of computer technology has all but eliminated human error from the decision-making process.
Computers define modern lifestyle better than perhaps any other device. They are used as entertainment hubs, knowledge stores, relationship portals, and what not. They are irreplaceable components of the hectic daily grind.

Computers have brought about a revolutionary leap in various sectors; sports, and sports science is no exception. The entry of computers into the world of sports changed it radically and permanently. Ask a modern coach to train his team without showing them video demonstrations, or a fan to lay off his team’s website for a couple of days, and you would be deserving of the punch that you would undoubtedly receive.

Computers are used by coaches to compile databases, compare and analyze their own as well as their opponents’ performance, by fans to keep in touch with their beloved team, and by independent agencies to create virtual likenesses of real players, or for security.

Here are some ways in which computers are employed in sports.

Computers in Sports
Statistics Database
The primary purpose of artificial memory is to store tons of information. These include meticulously arranged records of each and every season of the particular league, records of the best individual performers, team form, etc.

These databases are particularly useful to managers while scouting for new recruits. Statistics represent the effective output of an individual or a team, and, as the old adage goes, numbers never lie. These little nuggets of 1’s and 0’s tell how a player performs in particular conditions, how a team fares with or without a

Role of Computers in Education

Computers have changed the way we work, be it any profession. Therefore, it is only natural that the role of computers in education has been given a lot of importance in the recent years. Computers play a vital role in every field. They aid industrial processes, find applications in medicine; they are the reason why software industries developed and flourished and they play an important role in education. This is also why the education system has made computer education a part of school curriculum. Considering the use of computer technology is almost every sphere of life, it is important for everyone to have at least the basic knowledge of using computers. Let’s look at what role computer technology plays in the education sector.
Computers in Education
Computer technology has had a deep impact on the education sector. Thanks to computers, imparting education has become easier and much more interesting than before. Owing to memory capacities of computers, large chunks of data can be stored in them. They enable quick processing of data with very less or no chances of errors in processing. Networked computers aid quick communication and enable web access. Storing documents on computers in the form of soft copies instead of hard ones, helps save paper.
The advantages of computers in education primarily include:
– Storage of information
– Quick data processing
– Audio-visual aids in teaching
– Better presentation of information
– Access to the Internet
– Quick communication between students, teachers and parents

Computer teaching and interactive learning play a key role in education. Computer technology is integrated into the modern education system.

Computers – A Brilliant Aid in Teaching
Students find it easier to refer to the Internet than searching for information in fat books. The process of learning has gone beyond learning from prescribed textbooks. Internet is a

Importance of Computers in Medicine

Computers play a key role in almost every sphere of life. They facilitate storage of huge amounts of data, they enable speedy processing of information and they possess an inbuilt intelligence, which if supplemented with human intellect, can work wonders. Owing to their intelligence and speed, computers function on a level close to that of the human brain. They can hence be employed in different fields like engineering, data processing and storage, planning and scheduling, networking, education as well as health and medicine. You might want to take a look at the various uses of computers, before looking at the importance of computers in medicine.
Computers in the Medical Field
Right from efficient data storage and easy access and sharing of information, to conducting medical tests and simulating complex surgical procedures, computers have an important role to play in the medical field. It can be put under four main categories that include:
– Data Storage
– Surgical Procedures
– Diagnostic Tests
– Knowledge Sharing
As in any other field, the importance of computer technology in medicine cannot be ignored.
Storage of Patient Data and Health Information
▸ Computers are an excellent means for storage of patient-related data. Hospitals employ computer systems to maintain patient records.
▸ It is often necessary to maintain detailed records of the medical history of patients. Doctors often require information about a patient’s family history, physical ailments in the family (if any), already diagnosed diseases and prescribed medicines. This information can be stored in a computer database.
▸ Computers can keep track of prescriptions and billing information. They can be used to store information about the medicines prescribed to a patient as well as those, which cannot be prescribed to him/her (ones which the patient is allergic to).
▸ Computers enable an efficient storage of huge amounts of

Advantages of the Internet in Education

benefits of Internet
The fast and relatively low-cost access is one of the major benefits of Internet to people and students all over the world, as getting an Internet connection is easy. Communication and information are the two basic uses of the Internet. Information available on websites can be updated or modified at any time and for any number of times, which helps in learning and better understanding.

Using Multimedia
Arguably, it is believed that visual data has a greater impact on learning and memorizing than plain text. Therefore, images, graphics, animation, pictures, slides, documentaries, etc., have a greater appeal than a plain textbook. Using multimedia and Internet provides an opportunity for children to gain knowledge about a particular subject in depth. Students can now see actual photographs of rare bird species, or see animated graphics of a volcanic eruption to understand the concept in detail.

Online Learning
Another positive effect of Internet in education is the onset of distance education or online education (internet-based training (IBT) or web-based training (WBT). With this facility, you can take up short-term courses with the course material available online, attend virtual classes, learn, and appear for exams. One of the benefits of online learning is that people from any part of the world can gain knowledge on different subjects, complete courses, etc.

Easy Contact
Students can contact other students or their teachers via the e-mail if they have queries about any information. Sharing of information, discussions on a particular subject, etc., can be easily carried out using the Internet. At the same time, teachers can also contact parents and guardians easily using Internet.

School/College Projects
Using the Internet can be very useful for completing projects in schools and colleges. As the Internet is an ocean of information, covering nearly all subjects

Computer Freezes After Startup – Troubleshooting Tips

While working on computers, there is a high probability that your system may freeze for no rhyme or reason. If your computer freezes frequently, it is time you first figure out the reasons behind such malfunctioning of your system.

Reasons Why Computer Freezes on Startup

There are myriad reasons for a computer freezing on startup. Following are a few causes, which could be detrimental in freezing your system more often.

Defective hardware (Electrostatic discharge and loose connections between hardware and computer motherboard)
Faulty software (Codes using lot of RAM; software infected with adbots, viruses and spyware)
Bugged operating systems (A corrupted Windows registry of operating system)
Infected drivers (Improper installation of drivers, small programs that enable the hardware and software to work in sync)

In all the above, the root cause that answers your query on why computer freezes is, almost all computers today are assembled and so the hardware components are manufactured by different vendors, which may result in hardware malfunctioning of the system. If your software is corrupted with malicious programs through Internet, freezing on startup is a warning sign indicating that your operating system may be at risk. This is because, viruses and spyware usually replicate their code and store them at hidden locations in your system, thereby using up more RAM. This eventually slows down your system. However, if the registry of the operating system is corrupted, then a symptom like computer freezing on startup would indicate warning to reformat your system.

Computer Freezes Shortly After Startup – Fixing the Problem

Sometimes, it may happen that you log into your system and as the system is loading, your computer freezes randomly, and no matter how many times you tap your keys and bang your mouse, the system remains frozen. In that case,

Computer Keeps Rebooting Itself

A frequently rebooting computer can really be a frustrating experience for anyone. Common factors that cause this problem are,

– Issues with software
– Hardware malfunction
– Computer virus

Issues with Software

Software-related issues can cause the computer to restart frequently. To check if a faulty/corrupt software is the cause, try to run the computer in ‘Safe Mode’. If your computer keeps rebooting itself, the chances of an issue with the software are remote. On the other hand, if your computer does not reboot in the ‘Safe Mode’, then the problem is with the software. As the issue is related to the software, we recommend that you take the help of a programmer/technician to fix this issue.

Hardware Malfunction

A hardware malfunction is one of the most common reasons which leads to automatic rebooting. If you have recently added a hardware device, you need to disconnect it to check whether it is causing the computer to restart. Also, ensure that all the cables and power sources are properly connected to the computer. Sometimes, a loose connection can cause the computer to reboot over and over again. The possibility of the RAM being the culprit is remote, as with a faulty RAM (Random-Access Memory), the computer ceases to start, or shows a blank screen. To ensure that there is no hardware conflict in the computer, follow the path mentioned below.

Start → Search → Device Manager → Press Enter

Alternatively, you can go to the ‘Device Manager’ through the following path,

Start → Control Panel → Administrative Tools → Computer Management → Device manager

‘Device Manager’ will list all the hardware attached to the computer. A device which is not properly connected to the computer, will have one of the following against its name:

1. A yellow exclamation mark or ‘Other Devices’
2. A red

How to Fix an ‘Invalid Partition Table’ Error

Partition tables or partition maps store information to help load the operating system into the computer. The BIOS is a firmware that stores partition tables and the associated memory data. It’s the first thing that loads when you switch on the computer. The BIOS is required to check whether the partitions are in working condition. The most common use of the BIOS is to format your system or reinstall a better operating system (OS).

So imagine how you would feel when your OS doesn’t load, and shows a message Invalid Partition Table. Partition systems of old contained the Master Boot Record, which was responsible for the booting of the system. Since Windows Vista, manufacturers have started using a new system, GUID Partition Table (GPT), which allows the computer to be split into multiple partitions, extremely useful for dual-booting systems.

An invalid partition table error occurs due to the following reasons:

– The MBR is trying to boot from some other device than the DVD-ROM, which is the first option in the boot priority order.
– When some other device is connected to the USB port, like a flash drive or an external hard disk drive (HDD).
– There is no operating system installed on the computer.

In the following sections, we shall tell you how to fix the invalid partition table error.

On Windows XP

Step 1: Analysis

– Download Hiren’s BootCD, a free bootable software that will run at the time of booting, irrespective if your operating system works or not. Burn it to a CD/DVD and insert it in the CD drive to make it run.
– Press Ctrl+Alt+Del to restart your computer.
– Press F12 to enter BIOS and enter 1st Boot Setting : CD-ROM Group. Change the booting order to reflect the changes.
– Save the changes.
– Now restart the computer once

How to Fix Java Virtual Machine Launcher Error

Tip to fix Java virtual machine launcher error
JVM Function
The Java virtual machine is responsible for memory allocation and garbage collection, along with interpretation of byte code to machine code.
The Java runtime environment (JRE) is mandatory to be installed on your computer for certain applications to work properly. The main component of JRE is the Java virtual machine (JVM), which helps run Java applications. A java file, on compilation, produces a ‘.class’ file instead of an executable file. This class file contains Java byte code, which the JVM interprets into machine-readable instructions. JVM is platform-independent, since it provides a machine interface that does not depend on the underlying operating system and hardware architecture.

There may be times that you may get error messages while launching JVM, in situations such as booting the computer, playing games like Minecraft, or opening certain Java-based applications. Here, we have compiled a few solutions that may help you fix Java virtual machine launcher errors on Windows XP, Windows 7, and Windows 8.

Error Message #1: Could not create the Java Virtual Machine.
This error message is commonly encountered while trying to start Java-based games, such as Minecraft.
➦Open the control panel.
➦Go to system.
➦Go to advanced systems properties.
➦Click ‘environment variables’.
➦In system variables, click ‘new’.
➦Put new variable name: _JAVA_OPTIONS
➦Put new variable value: -Xmx512M
➦Click ‘ok’.

-Xmx/s is the configuration parameter that controls the amount of memory Java uses.

Xmx is the maximum heap memory size that can be allocated.
Xms is the minimum heap memory size that can be allocated.

Error Message #2: Error opening registry key.
This error may be encountered while working with Java in command prompt.
➦Go to Windows\system32 folder.
➦Delete the Java executable files, including java.exe, javaw.exe, and javaws.exe.
➦Reinstall JRE.
Error Message #3: Java

Print Screen Not Working – Troubleshooting Tips

Some functions are carried out by keyboard keys combination like ‘Ctrl + Alt + Delete’ (the most famous keyboard combination ever!), some are carried out by a devoted keyboard button like the ‘Print Screen’ key. By learning to use the key, you can easily take a screenshot of your desktop. This function is often helpful while recording errors on Windows and other operating systems. It can also be helpful when saving a webpage snapshot as a record.

I recently faced a problem with the print screen key. When I searched online, there was hardly any useful information presented, that could solve the problem. Finally, I had to gather bits and pieces from several computer forums to find an effective solution to fix the problem. I decided to share these tips on solving the screen capture problem here.

Print Screen Doesn’t Work in Windows – What Should You Do?
To get a screenshot, all you have to do is hit ‘PrtScn’ button and using ‘Ctrl + V’, you can paste that image in any image editor to save. Alternatively, if you don’t want the entire screen to be printed out, press ‘Alt+PrtScn’ key shortcut, to get the screenshot of just the active window. Often the problem in Windows Vista or Windows 7 crops up, when you want to copy the screenshots to paint or to Adobe Photoshop.
Just Restart the Computer
Sometimes, the problem is at a hardware level, where the keyboard entries are not mapping properly. Simply restarting your computer might restore the functionality of the computer.
Turn F Lock Off
Microsoft introduced the F Lock function to provide alternate application based tasks to the function keys (F1 – F12). It was later incorporated by keyboard manufacturers with a special key devoted to it. In case F lock is turned on, the print screen

How to Fix the ‘Page Fault in Nonpaged Area’ Error

Did You Know?
The ‘Blue Screen of Death’, or BSoD, is a Windows error screen that appears when the OS encounters a fatal error, such as a system crash, stop error, kernel error, or bug check.
‘Page Fault in Nonpaged Area 0x50’ is a Windows system error message for the 0x50 stop error. It is known to occur when a page of memory required for the PC to continue processing isn’t available. This causes Windows to crash, displaying the BSoD, on which the following message is visible:
STOP: 0x00000050
This error is prevalent in nearly all versions of Windows, including Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, and 8.1. In the following lines, we shall learn more about this error, and the means to get rid of it, starting with a discussion on what a nonpaged area means.
What is the Nonpaged Area?
The Windows OS uses RAM to store the information that it needs to execute a current process or task. The RAM in turn uses a location on the local hard disk to store pages of the memory that are needed, but aren’t actively used. As the processing continues, pages of memory are swapped between the RAM and the page file as and when required.

However, certain data is constantly required for the working of the operating system. As such, instead of swapping this data between the RAM and the page file, it is kept constantly active by being stored in a separate section of the RAM. This section is known as the nonpage area of the RAM.
What Causes the ‘Page Fault in Nonpaged Area’ Error?
As discussed above, the nonpaged area of the RAM is reserved for the critical data needed by Windows. Though most software are designed to prevent using this area, some

UTP Cable Standards and Their Usage in Networks

UTP cable standards and their usage
UTP stands for unshielded twisted pair (UTP) Cable. It has two wires twisted around each other. These two wires or conductors form a single circuit. They are twisted around each other so that they negate the electromagnetic interference from other sources. They are not covered with meshes or aluminum foils.
These wires are used in telephone lines and computer networking.

There are some specifications defined for UTP cables by the 568A Commercial Building Wiring Standard of the Electronic Industries Association and the Telecommunication Industries Association (EIA/TIA). We get you acquainted with these UTP cabling standards and their usage in networks in the following write-up.

UTP cabling standards

Category 1 cable

It is also known as Cat 1, Level 1, or voice-grade copper cable. It can carry voice signals, but is not capable of transmitting data. Hence, it is used in telephone lines. 1 MHz is the maximum frequency that can be transmitted over this kind of cable. This category is unrecognized by the official TIA/EIA standards.

Category 2 cable

This category contains 4 pairs of twisted cables. We can transmit both voice and data over it. The maximum frequency that can be transmitted over it is 4 MHz, and the maximum bandwidth that can be transmitted over it is 4Mbps. Anixter International, a leading distributor of network components, defines this category as Level 2 although TIA/EIA-568 does not recognize it.

Category 3 cable

This category consists of 4 pairs of twisted copper wire that have 3 twists per foot. It is defined by TIA/EIA-568B. It transmits data up to 10Mbps, and the maximum frequency signal that it transmits is 16 MHz. It is put to use in computer networking. But currently instead of this, Cat5e or Cat6 cables are used in practice.

Category 4 cable

This category of cables

Key Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6

Difference between IPv4 and IPv6
In this present age, it is impossible to imagine communication of any kind at all without the Internet Protocol, or IP. Networks around us, including the broadband (or any other variation of) Internet connection provided to us by our Internet Service Providers (ISPs), local area networks (LAN) in our school or place of work, mobile networks provided by our carrier, and wide area networks (Wi-Max, for example), all thrive only because they employ the IP logical addressing scheme, the worldwide standard, as their backbone (or in rare cases, they make use of a different network layer protocol that is translatable to IP).

The IPv4 protocol, which was defined in the early 80s, when the concept of the Internet was still in its nascent stages, has been the predominant IP standard for more than two decades. But since the turn of the millennium, the movement towards shifting to networks with the newer IPv6 architecture has begun. If you are curious to know how and why IPv6 was incorporated in the first place, how it differs from IPv4, and what its features are, you can put your doubts to rest, as we at Buzzle have laid out an in-depth comparison of the two to help you understand both of them better.

Understanding How IP Works

• According to the OSI model (the standard analogy used to represent the working of the Internet), the Internet Protocol (IP) is a network layer protocol that encapsulates the data segments it receives from the immediately higher transport layer, into datagrams or data packets, which are then forwarded to their respective destination networks.

• This protocol, restricted to packet-switched networks, is a connectionless one that works as per the best-effort delivery model, which means that it can neither ensure reliable data