Use of Computers in Agriculture

Technological advances have brought about drastic changes in farming and animal husbandry resulting in a tremendous increase in production capacity. The most common use of computers has been in replacing human effort and intervention in traditional farming machinery and other equipment. In addition, even the support functions for farming such as delivery of machinery, fertilizers and production of raw products have been successfully automated. But all these are just the labor-saving, basic uses that have been around even before the turn of the century. If computers have changed the ways of farming, then the Internet has only doubled that pace of change.

Applications of Computing Technologies in Agriculture

In today’s times, agriculture is not just about crop production or livestock farming and associated activities. The challenges brought forth by ecological factors affecting the environment need to be a major consideration for any kind of farming activity. Farmers need to preempt environmental impact due to climate change and this is where modern technology comes to the rescue. In a nutshell, the uses of computers in agriculture include:

– There are software which help in the prediction of weather conditions and estimation of agricultural production.
– Computers are used for record-keeping of information related to costs involved in production, transport, agricultural processes, and in the estimation and calculation of profit and/or loss.
– The Internet aids communication among farmers and between farmers and agriculture experts. This leads to an exchange of knowledge and serves as guidance for farmers to improve production and earn profits.
– Thanks to the use of software technology, farming practices have evolved into those requiring less effort and leading to greater output. Mechanization has reduced human/animal effort and increased the speed and quality of production.

Farmland Assessment
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are being used for developing ranking systems that evaluate land and provide a site assessment to aid what is now known as precision agriculture. These hi-tech, interactive systems provide information based on a variety of factors such as soil conditions, drainage and slope conditions, soil pH and nutrient status, etc. Prior to the use of these systems, farmers were often in the dark about soil output, and unpredictable weather conditions affecting crop quality and profitability. Precision agriculture provides farmers with control by predicting vital information including fertilizer application and problems with drainage, insects, and weeds. Most government websites provide this kind of information free of cost, covering agricultural land masses across the United States. Global Positioning System (GPS) based technologies also help to monitor irrigation, field mapping, soil sampling, tractor guidance and crop scouting. This kind of technology equips farmers with enough information to increase crop yield in a manner that is consistent with the best environmental practices for sustainable agriculture.

Autonomous Farm Equipment and Tractors
Automated farm equipment, needless to say, scores over human controlled equipment in terms of consistency and reliability. Engine and machine functions such as transmission and hydraulic power output are controlled using microchips built into the equipment. Guidance technology is already being widely used in self-propelled equipment to aid crop seeding and fertilizer application. Automated feeding systems, computerized milk collection and milking machines have been around since the late 20th century, resulting in better economic yield for the dairy industry as well as livestock production. Automated tractors are probably not far away.

Farm Software
With regard to livestock farming, ready-made computer applications are available to track animals, storing and evaluating information such as age, health records, milk production, offspring productivity, and reproductive cycle status. This is often called herd recording. Similarly, most farm accounting software and other computer applications in agriculture provide services for record keeping, simulation of prediction-based models using that data, and revenue and productivity estimation. Most farm software vendors provide you with an option to customize their applications to the specific needs of your farm or ranch.

Internet Forums, Social Networking and Online Knowledge Bases
Any business in the world that you can think of, has benefited from the advent and global reach of the Internet and related communication technologies (mobile computing, e-commerce, etc.). Agriculture is no different. Imagine using the power of the Internet to connect with farmers, agriculturists and agricultural scientists and other experts spread across the globe. There are several forums and social networking sites on the Internet where farmers can connect with other farmers and farming experts and exchange know-how. In addition, there are several learning repositories that provide information on a wide variety of agricultural topics. These avenues serve to reduce the rural digital divide, influence public policies, foster partnerships and connect all stakeholders across the agricultural value chain. For instance, a farmer can easily seek out and connect with an agricultural entrepreneur and begin the exchange of ideas or business proposals. Information such as price review for grain and livestock, pest information, real-time weather information (precipitation, temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, soil moisture and soil temperature) in any part of the world is literally available at one’s fingertips.

E-agriculture
An emerging field of agricultural practices, e-agriculture focuses on coming up with innovative ways and best practices to use the existing information and communication technologies (ICTs) for sustainable agricultural development and food safety standards, particularly in rural areas. E-agriculture encompasses other related technological fields such as agricultural informatics, agricultural development and business. It aims to deploy all available technologies (computers, mobile computing, satellite systems, smart cards) for the empowerment of farmers and strengthening of partnerships across the food value chain.

The uses of computers in agriculture do have some real constraints such as, the lack of hardware and software infrastructure, training and skills, and research priorities. However, once these are overcome, the use of computers goes past automation and software application. In fact, it could be instrumental in bridging the digital divide and bringing prosperity to agriculturists not only in the United States, but also in other developing and emerging economies around the world.

The Harmful Influence of the Computer

This simple statement is truer and clearer than one may realize. It is an established fact that nothing interesting is one-sided. Every little thing is this world has its pros and cons; nothing is perfect. This is especially true for electronic devices, prominent among them being the computer. You would be shocked to know that it was categorized as being among the 40 most health-damaging jobs.

Computerization has brought about a revolution in the world. The machine is desperately and heavily used every where – in schools, at home, in companies, institutions, and so on. No doubting its valuable contribution in the fields of space, agriculture, defense, education, etc., but after a period, it does have some negative effects. Some of these influences are as follows.

Effects on Education

As mentioned before, this machine has contributed effectively to the field of education. With the click of a button, one can gather all the possible information they want. However, what is happening today is that even children who cannot read and write yet, are already used to this machine. They develop at a very early age, the habit of playing on the computers for hours on end. Where were the good old days of outdoor play? At the age of four and five, they are already playing games and operating software. While this is good in the sense that it makes children tech-savvy, it is very harmful as well, as they get addicted to this machine and start misusing it over time. The actual interaction between the teacher and students has long gone. The Internet does provide a million online learning courses of course, but in some cases, instead of simplifying the education system, new complications have arisen.

Effects on Health

According to the latest research, this device does not improve our health, and it can seriously damage our system when it is improperly used. Manufacturers assert that the devices are absolutely harmless. Research though, has a different story to tell. When we work on this machine, staring at the monitor, we need to read, type, analyze, correct mistakes, and perhaps do all that more than once. The eyes have to try adjusting to all that pressure, and the eyesight may be damaged. People working for long hours on this machine have the most health complaints because of muscle and joint diseases. This might be restricted to neck torpor, pain in the shoulders, in the loins, etc. However, there can be more grievous problems such as the carpal tunnel syndrome, which refers to the damage of arm nerves due to the excessive time spent working on the PC.

The negative effects of computers on our eyes can be referred to as CVS (Computer Vision Syndrome), which includes dryness of the eyes, eyestrain, backache, neck ache, wrist ache, reduced acuity of vision, distress, reduced capacity of concentration, and so on.

The reasons for these health-related problems are – the excess of information and the electromagnetic fields.

Excess of Information: Our heart spends energy for blood circulation, and our lungs need energy for breathing. When it comes to our brain, it requires energy for managing pieces of information. Some scientists consider that the human brain uses 1,200 Kcal every day. Thus, the problem occurs when our brain needs to take away the energy resources from other organs in order to supplement for the energy lapse it has to face. Because of that, people are often under a high level of mental pressure, which may lead to anxiety, lack of energy, emotional instability, and inefficiency in completing the required work.

Electromagnetic Fields: Electromagnetic fields affect the biological processes of our body. People might feel dizziness because of exposure to weak electromagnetic fields. That is because those low-intensity fields reduce the intensity of blood pressure. For that reason, we are very likely to sense a decrease in our body temperature after overusing the laptop.

Effects on Society

We have become so addicted to this device, that we rarely communicate with people around us. We are capable of working alone due to this device, instead of collaborating with colleagues, if we were to do the work manually. The work environment has been severely affected due to this lack of interaction, thus promoting an anti-social culture. Worse still, and melodramatic though it may sound, it has brought about weak human bonds. If one is not a member of a social networking site, he/she is shunned away. People spend more time on these sites than talking with friends and family.

General Effects

This point might be categorized more under a disadvantage rather than a harmful influence. Since the advent of this machine and the Internet, people have nowadays begun to misuse it for various reasons. Hacking is a prime hazard. People have found ways to circumvent security issues and access private data, which is no less than a crime. They introduce spyware and malware in people’s machines. Personal data is being accessed illegally. Graphic software like Adobe PhotoShop, has been wrongly used to create pornographic videos. Computer crimes have come on the forefront, and little action is taken against the offenders.

All said and done, we have to admit that the harmful influence of the computer is brought about by all of us. We need to know how carefully and legally to use it, and where to draw the line. As regards to health issues, we need to take certain precautions so that we stay away from the negative effects. All in all, one can conclude that any device if used ethically, is tremendously useful. On the other hand, if it is used in an illegal way, it is bound to cause trouble.

Use of Computers in Business

The Information Technology (IT) revolution that brought in computers has gone through a variety of stages. The prominent introduction being in the 1960s, when big companies had to store large amounts of data. The revolution of computers initially was used for complex data bases only. However, people realized the many uses that computers had to offer to everyone for daily use. Two major breakthroughs were the introduction of PCs and Mac computers, which of course greatly facilitated businesses and working people in several ways. Apart from that, hardware such as scanners, CDs, floppy drives, and printers, have facilitated the operations of offices in a big way.

All-in-one Device
Earlier, before computers were introduced in businesses, there were multiple devices in offices such as fax machines, typewriters, telefax equipment, stenography equipment, and filing cabinets that were used extensively. Computers successfully replaced all these office tools. The entire office became ‘dematerialized’, which also resulted in the optimum use of the available space.

Accounting and Finance
A computer is a clever accountant. There are countless accounting software that can cleverly record entries and plan finances. These financial software basically increase the accuracy and efficiency of the accounting process. There are also several Internet banking facilities that have come into use in recent times. Such facilities enable people to conduct transactions from their offices, saving them a journey to the bank.

Communication
The Internet and the concept of emails has benefited businesses immensely, as information, letters, graphics, applications, and almost any sort of communication can be transmitted from person to person, at distant locations, in a matter of seconds. The Internet also helps in communication to the masses. Stock investors, Forex traders, media companies, financial planners, and company owners rely heavily on electronic communication for instant transfer of information.

Technical Software
Technical software are used by countless people worldwide, such as engineers, architects, logistics personnel, etc. These software are user-friendly, accurate, convenient, and fast. A multitude of things can now be done and created with the help of computers, like designs, graphics, blueprints, program codes, etc.

Documents/Presentations
In today’s world, it is easy to prepare documents and create presentations. Decades ago, these would take weeks, if not days, to be completed. Due to everything being computerized, important documents and presentations can be completed in a matter of hours, acting as a catalyst for various business processes.

Research
Gone are the days when one needed to go to a library and search through shelves of books to get some information. Nowadays, when an organization needs some information, it’s available at the click of a button. It also allows business to get updated information about competitors, suppliers, customers, and the like, which obviously helps in the better running of any business organization.

Storage
Unlike olden times, information and data storage now takes up hardly any place. Gone are the days when offices needed large storerooms in order to store hundreds of files of important data. Computers and servers have allowed us the luxury of storing much more data in much less space.

Computers are something we take for granted nowadays. Little do we realize how this device has made life so much easier, both on the personal and professional front.

Uses Of Computers in Sports

Uses of computers in sports
In Or Out?
Research is being conducted over “smart” soccer balls that are fitted with a microchip, and alert the referee via headset when the ball crosses a line. Such application of computer technology has all but eliminated human error from the decision-making process.
Computers define modern lifestyle better than perhaps any other device. They are used as entertainment hubs, knowledge stores, relationship portals, and what not. They are irreplaceable components of the hectic daily grind.

Computers have brought about a revolutionary leap in various sectors; sports, and sports science is no exception. The entry of computers into the world of sports changed it radically and permanently. Ask a modern coach to train his team without showing them video demonstrations, or a fan to lay off his team’s website for a couple of days, and you would be deserving of the punch that you would undoubtedly receive.

Computers are used by coaches to compile databases, compare and analyze their own as well as their opponents’ performance, by fans to keep in touch with their beloved team, and by independent agencies to create virtual likenesses of real players, or for security.

Here are some ways in which computers are employed in sports.

Computers in Sports
Statistics Database
The primary purpose of artificial memory is to store tons of information. These include meticulously arranged records of each and every season of the particular league, records of the best individual performers, team form, etc.

These databases are particularly useful to managers while scouting for new recruits. Statistics represent the effective output of an individual or a team, and, as the old adage goes, numbers never lie. These little nuggets of 1’s and 0’s tell how a player performs in particular conditions, how a team fares with or without a particular player, how it has improved or worsened over a season, etc. Without the advent of computers, goodbye ‘moneyball’, goodbye ‘replacing one player with three’, and maybe goodbye 20 wins in a row (sorry Oakland fans)!

Simulation
Simulators are particularly useful in motorsports. The more a driver/rider gets acclimatized to a particular machine off the track, the more chances he has of making the most on it. Teams spend millions on the most realistic simulator, and not without due cause.
Performance Analysis
Bio-mechanics allow a player to closely scrutinize his workout regimen and his playing style, and make changes to increase performance. Golf swings, pitching, hitting, and sprinting are just a few of the many disciplines which can be massively improved through bio-mechanics.

Performance analysis through bio-mechanics not only fine-tunes an athlete’s performance, but also makes him/her fitter and more resistant to injuries. It can reveal minute abnormalities in the physique before they balloon into serious injuries, and experts can then recommend changes to minimize the risk.

Bio-mechanics also facilitate the life-like imitations of real players in video games. Every nook and cranny of the athlete’s face is scanned, the tiniest action recorded, and is then analyzed and imitated through their virtual selves.

Official Team Websites
Websites of sports teams and sports news networks are among the most visited sites on the Internet. Fans like to keep in touch with their teams even when not using their season tickets, or even if they live thousands of miles away from their favorite team. They need constant updates on the next game, reports about the last game, and every little snippet of the latest transfer rumors.

Sports websites are also home to fantasy leagues, which is a multi-billion-dollar industry. More than 30 million people play fantasy leagues in the US and Canada; the Fantasy Sports Trade Association estimated that 32 million people played fantasy leagues in the US and Canada in 2010! Sports websites are also leading avenues of online sports merchandise sales.

Equipment Design
Computer-aided manufacturing technology has massively improved the standard of equipment and protective gear, and has made contact and risky sports much safer. Crucial equipment such as helmets, balls, bats, skates, or hoops can be made safer, sturdier, and more comfortable through computer technology. Like in bio-mechanical studies regarding players, equipment is also tested extensively before being made available to sportspersons, and is being constantly bettered by sports goods manufacturers.
Telemetry
The word telemetry literally means ‘measurement from distance’. Computers can provide instant information on any piece of action in a game. It can tell us the speed of the latest pitch, the reaction times of sprinters or swimmers, or miscellaneous technical data, like distance covered by a hit or throw.
Telemetry is especially important in sophisticated motorsports, where the balance of the race may shift in favor of the team who is able to analyze the accurately delivered telemetry about their car’s engine performance, acceleration, braking, etc.
Pattern Recognition
This important branch serves a dual purpose. On the playing field, advanced video technology and software can be used to identify weak links in the opponent’s game―individual or team. If a pitcher has a mystery ball up his sleeve, pattern recognition programs will catch up on that; if a soccer team employs a particular formation, pattern recognition can identify weak links in the seemingly impenetrable strategy. However, conveying the results to the players and milking the opponent’s weaknesses depends on the ingenuity and pedigree of the coach.

The other purpose served by pattern recognition technology is stadium security. Cameras at strategic vantage points scan the entire stadium, and if the behavior of any particular fan sets off the alarm bells in the software, major disasters can be averted.

Vital Decisions
Computer technology is widely used in sports such as tennis, cricket, and football to determine ‘line calls’. Hawk-Eye technology, which traces the path or trajectory of a moving object―a ball, in this case―and accurately determines whether the object has crossed a specific line or mark, is a staple in major tennis tournaments and most cricket tournaments. Such technologies eliminate human error in making vital decisions, and unerringly deliver the correct verdict.
Computers have become an irreplaceable component of sports, and have improved countless aspects of sports and athletes to no end.

Role of Computers in Education

Computers have changed the way we work, be it any profession. Therefore, it is only natural that the role of computers in education has been given a lot of importance in the recent years. Computers play a vital role in every field. They aid industrial processes, find applications in medicine; they are the reason why software industries developed and flourished and they play an important role in education. This is also why the education system has made computer education a part of school curriculum. Considering the use of computer technology is almost every sphere of life, it is important for everyone to have at least the basic knowledge of using computers. Let’s look at what role computer technology plays in the education sector.
Computers in Education
Computer technology has had a deep impact on the education sector. Thanks to computers, imparting education has become easier and much more interesting than before. Owing to memory capacities of computers, large chunks of data can be stored in them. They enable quick processing of data with very less or no chances of errors in processing. Networked computers aid quick communication and enable web access. Storing documents on computers in the form of soft copies instead of hard ones, helps save paper.
The advantages of computers in education primarily include:
– Storage of information
– Quick data processing
– Audio-visual aids in teaching
– Better presentation of information
– Access to the Internet
– Quick communication between students, teachers and parents

Computer teaching and interactive learning play a key role in education. Computer technology is integrated into the modern education system.

Computers – A Brilliant Aid in Teaching
Students find it easier to refer to the Internet than searching for information in fat books. The process of learning has gone beyond learning from prescribed textbooks. Internet is a much larger and easier-to-access storehouse of information. When it comes to storing retrieved information, it is easier done on computers than maintaining hand-written notes.
Computers Gave Impetus to Distance Education
Online education has revolutionized the education industry. Computer technology has made the dream of distance learning a reality. Education is no longer limited to classrooms. It has reached far and wide, thanks to computers. Physically distant locations have come closer due to Internet accessibility. So, even if students and teachers are not in the same premises, they can very well communicate with one another. There are many online educational courses, whereby students are not required to attend classes or be physically present for lectures. They can learn from the comfort of their homes and adjust timings as per their convenience.
Computers Improve Presentation of Information
Computers facilitate effective presentation of information. Presentation software like PowerPoint and animation software like Flash among others can be of great help to teachers while delivering lectures. Computers facilitate audio-visual representation of information, thus making the process of learning interactive and interesting. Computer-aided teaching adds a fun element to education. Teachers hardly use chalk and board today. They bring presentations on a flash drive, plug it in to a computer in the classroom, and the teaching begins. There’s color, there’s sound, there’s movement – the same old information comes forth in a different way and learning becomes fun. The otherwise not-so-interesting lessons become interesting due to audio-visual effects. Due to the visual aid, difficult subjects can be explained in better ways. Things become easier to follow, thanks to the use of computers in education.
Computers Enable Internet Access
Internet has information on literally everything and computer technology enables easy access to it. Internet can play an important role in education. As it is an enormous information base, it can be harnessed for retrieval of information on a variety of subjects. The Internet can be used to refer to information on different subjects. Both teachers and students benefit from it. Teachers can refer to it for additional information and references on the topics to be taught. Students can refer to web sources for additional information on subjects of their interest. The Internet helps teachers set test papers, frame questions for home assignments and decide project topics. And not just academics, teachers can use web sources for ideas on sports competitions, extracurricular activities, picnics, parties and more.
Computers Allow Efficient Data Storage
Computer hard drives and storage devices are an excellent way to store data. Computers enable storage of data in the electronic format, thereby saving paper. Memory capacities of computer storage devices are in gigabytes. This enables them to store huge chunks of data. Moreover, these devices are compact. They occupy very less space, yet store large amounts of data. Both teachers and students benefit from the use of computer technology. Presentations, notes and test papers can be stored and transferred easily over computer storage devices. Similarly, students can submit homework and assignments as soft copies. The process becomes paperless, thus saving paper. Plus, the electronic format makes data storage more durable. Electronically erasable memory devices can be used repeatedly. They offer robust storage of data and reliable data retrieval.
This was about the role of computers in education. But we know, it’s not just the education sector which computers have impacted. They are of great use in every field. Today, a life without computers is unimaginable. This underlines the importance of computer education. Knowledge of computers can propel one’s career in the right direction. Computers are a part of almost every industry today. They are no longer limited any specific field. They are used in networking, for information access and data storage and also in the processing and presentation of information. Computers should be introduced early in education. It won’t be an overstatement to say that computer education is as fundamental as learning English. Yes, it is.

Importance of Computers in Medicine

Computers play a key role in almost every sphere of life. They facilitate storage of huge amounts of data, they enable speedy processing of information and they possess an inbuilt intelligence, which if supplemented with human intellect, can work wonders. Owing to their intelligence and speed, computers function on a level close to that of the human brain. They can hence be employed in different fields like engineering, data processing and storage, planning and scheduling, networking, education as well as health and medicine. You might want to take a look at the various uses of computers, before looking at the importance of computers in medicine.
Computers in the Medical Field
Right from efficient data storage and easy access and sharing of information, to conducting medical tests and simulating complex surgical procedures, computers have an important role to play in the medical field. It can be put under four main categories that include:
– Data Storage
– Surgical Procedures
– Diagnostic Tests
– Knowledge Sharing
As in any other field, the importance of computer technology in medicine cannot be ignored.
Storage of Patient Data and Health Information
▸ Computers are an excellent means for storage of patient-related data. Hospitals employ computer systems to maintain patient records.
▸ It is often necessary to maintain detailed records of the medical history of patients. Doctors often require information about a patient’s family history, physical ailments in the family (if any), already diagnosed diseases and prescribed medicines. This information can be stored in a computer database.
▸ Computers can keep track of prescriptions and billing information. They can be used to store information about the medicines prescribed to a patient as well as those, which cannot be prescribed to him/her (ones which the patient is allergic to).
▸ Computers enable an efficient storage of huge amounts of medical data. Medicine comprises a vast information base. Computer storage can serve as the best means of housing this information.
▸ Medical journals, research and diagnosis papers, important medical documents and reference books can best be stored in an electronic format.
Computers in Surgical Procedures
▸ Computer software is used for diagnosis of diseases. It can be used for the examination of internal organs of the body. Advanced computer-based systems are used to examine organs of the body.
▸ Some of the complex surgeries can be performed with the help of computers. Computer-assisted Surgery (CAS) is a fast-advancing field in medicine, which combines medical expertise with computer intelligence to give faster and more accurate results in surgical procedures. In CAS, a model of the patient is created, then analyzed prior to surgery. The surgical procedure is simulated on the virtual image of the patient.
▸ The surgery can then be performed by a surgical robot, as programmed by a medical professional or the robot may only assist doctors while they do the actual surgery.
▸ In both cases, computer intelligence is at work, thus underlining the uses of computers in medicine.
Computer Technology in Diagnostic Tests
▸ The different types of monitoring equipment in hospitals are often based on computer programming.
▸ Medical imaging deals with techniques to create images of the human body for medical purposes. Many of the modern methods of scanning and imaging are largely based on computer technology. We have been able to implement many of the advanced medical imaging techniques, thanks to developments in computer science.
▸ Magnetic resonance imaging employs computer software. Computed tomography makes use of digital geometry processing techniques to obtain 3-D images. Sophisticated computers and infrared cameras are used for obtaining high-resolution images. Computers are widely used for the generation of 3-D images.
▸ Many of the modern-day medical equipment have small, programmed computers. Many of the medical appliances of today work on pre-programmed instructions. The circuitry and logic in most of the medical equipment is basically a computer.
▸ The functioning of hospital-bed beeping systems, emergency alarm systems, X-ray machines and several such medical appliances is based on computer logic.
Communication and Knowledge Sharing
▸Computer technology eases the communication between medical practitioners and patients. Sharing of knowledge pertaining to research and updates in the medical field, can happen with greater efficiency, owing to computer technology.
▸ Computer networking enables quicker communication. Computers and the Internet have proven to be a boon in all spheres of life. In the field of medicine, computers allow faster communication between a patient and a doctor.
▸ Doctors can collaborate better over the Internet. Today, it is possible to obtain experts’ opinions within seconds by means of the Internet. Medical professionals sitting on opposite sides of the globe can communicate within minutes with the help of the Internet. It is due to computer networking technology that network communication has become easy.
▸ Medical practitioners can discuss medical issues in medical forums, they can blog, write articles, and contribute to medical journals available online.
▸ Updates in the medical field, advancements in medicine, information about new methods of treatment, etc. can reach the common man within minutes, thanks to the Internet and easy access to computers.
▸ Doctors can exchange images and messages in seconds and derive conclusions speedily. They can seek advice and share knowledge in a convenient manner over the Internet.
The importance of computers cannot be stressed enough. Computers have given a new dimension to every field, and medicine is no exception.

Advantages of the Internet in Education

benefits of Internet
The fast and relatively low-cost access is one of the major benefits of Internet to people and students all over the world, as getting an Internet connection is easy. Communication and information are the two basic uses of the Internet. Information available on websites can be updated or modified at any time and for any number of times, which helps in learning and better understanding.

Using Multimedia
Arguably, it is believed that visual data has a greater impact on learning and memorizing than plain text. Therefore, images, graphics, animation, pictures, slides, documentaries, etc., have a greater appeal than a plain textbook. Using multimedia and Internet provides an opportunity for children to gain knowledge about a particular subject in depth. Students can now see actual photographs of rare bird species, or see animated graphics of a volcanic eruption to understand the concept in detail.

Online Learning
Another positive effect of Internet in education is the onset of distance education or online education (internet-based training (IBT) or web-based training (WBT). With this facility, you can take up short-term courses with the course material available online, attend virtual classes, learn, and appear for exams. One of the benefits of online learning is that people from any part of the world can gain knowledge on different subjects, complete courses, etc.

Easy Contact
Students can contact other students or their teachers via the e-mail if they have queries about any information. Sharing of information, discussions on a particular subject, etc., can be easily carried out using the Internet. At the same time, teachers can also contact parents and guardians easily using Internet.

School/College Projects
Using the Internet can be very useful for completing projects in schools and colleges. As the Internet is an ocean of information, covering nearly all subjects known to man, one can find information, research work, etc., required for one’s projects. Going through the information on the Internet is definitely faster than reading an entire book on the subject. Completing homework is also easier with the help of the Internet.

Encyclopedia
Sometimes, an encyclopedia may not always be available to students and they may have difficulty in gaining access to the books in the library. In that case, the encyclopedia of various subjects available on the Internet can be helpful. This is more useful for students who belong to communities not having English as their mother tongue.

News
All the latest news are constantly updated on the Internet on news websites. Students learning politics, can have an access to all the current affairs through the Internet. Historical accounts like speeches, biographies, archive videos and photographs, etc., are also easily available on the Internet in detailed and accurate versions.

Affordable Knowledge
Investing in research material may be tedious and unaffordable for some. But, now, thanks to the Internet, we have content websites, web encyclopedias, and dictionaries whenever we want them. Today, able as well as less-able students can benefit from the sea of knowledge on the Internet. University courses and learning is now easy for people belonging to all strata of the society with the help of online courses.

Easy Education System
Not only gaining knowledge, but, every part of the education system is simplified because of the Internet. You can now view your prospective educational institute, look up courses, enroll for online courses, take classes, research, see your results, and even look for job prospects on the Internet. Therefore, the scope of Internet in education is very wide and equal to all.

No Age Bracket for Education
Online courses provide an opportunity for people of all age groups to take up education of their choice, according to their liking and wish. Be it a student, a housewife, or a professional, they can just start up their computers, connect to the Internet, and take virtual classes. Therefore, people can now gain knowledge according to their need and time available. You are, now, never too old or too busy to learn something new.

With these points, we find that the importance of Internet in education cannot be denied, and hence, every student should be given access to the Internet for deeper understanding and knowledge of a subject. However, lots and lots of information can be termed as both, advantages and disadvantages of the Internet as students can also have an access to unwanted or unethical information and sites. Therefore, it is only wise for parents to make students understand what is good and what not for them, or keep a watch on their surfing (web browsing).

Lastly, although the Internet cannot replace books or classroom education, it is one of the best substitute for those who wish to gain deeper knowledge on literally every subject under the sun.

Computer Freezes After Startup – Troubleshooting Tips

While working on computers, there is a high probability that your system may freeze for no rhyme or reason. If your computer freezes frequently, it is time you first figure out the reasons behind such malfunctioning of your system.

Reasons Why Computer Freezes on Startup

There are myriad reasons for a computer freezing on startup. Following are a few causes, which could be detrimental in freezing your system more often.

Defective hardware (Electrostatic discharge and loose connections between hardware and computer motherboard)
Faulty software (Codes using lot of RAM; software infected with adbots, viruses and spyware)
Bugged operating systems (A corrupted Windows registry of operating system)
Infected drivers (Improper installation of drivers, small programs that enable the hardware and software to work in sync)

In all the above, the root cause that answers your query on why computer freezes is, almost all computers today are assembled and so the hardware components are manufactured by different vendors, which may result in hardware malfunctioning of the system. If your software is corrupted with malicious programs through Internet, freezing on startup is a warning sign indicating that your operating system may be at risk. This is because, viruses and spyware usually replicate their code and store them at hidden locations in your system, thereby using up more RAM. This eventually slows down your system. However, if the registry of the operating system is corrupted, then a symptom like computer freezing on startup would indicate warning to reformat your system.

Computer Freezes Shortly After Startup – Fixing the Problem

Sometimes, it may happen that you log into your system and as the system is loading, your computer freezes randomly, and no matter how many times you tap your keys and bang your mouse, the system remains frozen. In that case, I would suggest you to try the following:

– Reboot your system and set your system in clean boot.
– Click on Start, and type msconfig in the search box of the start menu and click on Enter.
– The system may prompt you for a confirmation, sometimes asking for an administrator’s password. Type the password and click on Continue.
– Now, click on selective startup on General tab and under the Selective startup of the General tab, clear the load startup items checkbox.
– Select Services tab and click the check box for Hide all Microsoft Services. Then click on Disable All.
– Click OK. And once the system prompts, click on Restart.
– If your system starts, apply divide and conquer algorithm to detect the non Microsoft service which is causing the problem, if your system is running on Windows Vista or Windows XP.

Once the startup fiasco is solved, check for the registry. Here are some steps to check this.

– Click on Start.
– In the search box of startup menu, type REGEDIT. Click Enter.
– Now find this registry key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\FileSystem
– Once found, set the NtfsDisable8dot3NameCreation to 1 to delete any duplicate or short versions for DOS names.

Computer Freezes After Startup But Works in Safe Mode – Fixing the Problem

Most people complain about the computer freezing up in Windows Vista and they might also observe that it prompts for the system to start in ‘Safe Mode’, once rebooted. Now before understanding whether this safe mode is advisable or not, it is important to understand what this safe mode is all about. Safe mode is a special way for Windows to load when a system is not starting in the normal mode. Now in the safe mode, not all functions are enabled. Most device drivers are not loaded (like that of printer and scanner). The command files autoexec.bat or config.sys are not run. Standard VGA graphic mode is used and not the normal graphics device driver. In this mode, the system checks for the msdos.sys for information to find the required Window files. So now the question arises, what to do once the system boots in safe mode? To check the root reason for what had caused Windows to load incompletely should be your first plan of action.

Click on Start, and click on control panel. In recent times, if you have added any device driver, try uninstalling it and then attempt a reboot. If your system starts normally, it means that the device was having some conflict with the driver software. Check further for installation of games or new applications and try uninstalling them as well, if you have doubts about their installation. However, if there is no problem with the hardware or the software, then it indicates a corrupt registry issue, which can be resolved only by getting a new installation copy of Windows.

When you face such an issue, do not jump into conclusions, that your system needs reformatting. Check out all the possible causes and try to figure out the core reason why your computer freezes after starting. And yes, one more important thing, always save your data in backup devices like CD or a pen drive. It will save your work at least!
Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/computer-freezes-after-startup.html

Computer Keeps Rebooting Itself

A frequently rebooting computer can really be a frustrating experience for anyone. Common factors that cause this problem are,

– Issues with software
– Hardware malfunction
– Computer virus

Issues with Software

Software-related issues can cause the computer to restart frequently. To check if a faulty/corrupt software is the cause, try to run the computer in ‘Safe Mode’. If your computer keeps rebooting itself, the chances of an issue with the software are remote. On the other hand, if your computer does not reboot in the ‘Safe Mode’, then the problem is with the software. As the issue is related to the software, we recommend that you take the help of a programmer/technician to fix this issue.

Hardware Malfunction

A hardware malfunction is one of the most common reasons which leads to automatic rebooting. If you have recently added a hardware device, you need to disconnect it to check whether it is causing the computer to restart. Also, ensure that all the cables and power sources are properly connected to the computer. Sometimes, a loose connection can cause the computer to reboot over and over again. The possibility of the RAM being the culprit is remote, as with a faulty RAM (Random-Access Memory), the computer ceases to start, or shows a blank screen. To ensure that there is no hardware conflict in the computer, follow the path mentioned below.

Start → Search → Device Manager → Press Enter

Alternatively, you can go to the ‘Device Manager’ through the following path,

Start → Control Panel → Administrative Tools → Computer Management → Device manager

‘Device Manager’ will list all the hardware attached to the computer. A device which is not properly connected to the computer, will have one of the following against its name:

1. A yellow exclamation mark or ‘Other Devices’
2. A red ‘X’ symbol
3. Down arrow

1. A yellow exclamation indicates that a device is not compatible with other hardware devices, or its drivers have not been installed. To rectify this, delete all such devices which have a yellow exclamation mark against their name, or which fall under ‘Other Devices’. Restart the computer and check if these devices have been detected by the Operating System (OS). If the problem persists, you need to download the latest drivers for these devices. You can download the drivers from the manufacturer’s website.
2. A red ‘X’ symbolizes that the either the device has been removed, or the operating system is unable to detect it. Troubleshooting involves ‘enabling’ the device from the ‘Device Manager’ tool, and restarting the computer to check if the OS is now able to detect the device. If the device still remains undetected, you need to download the latest drivers for the device.
3. Devices with a down arrow against their name indicate that the devices have been disabled. They can easily be enabled through the ‘Device Manager’ tool.

To check if your computer is rebooting continuously because of ‘bad memory’, you need to run a scan. Windows OS is equipped with ‘Windows Memory Diagnostics’, which runs a memory test on the computer. You can open this tool by following the path mentioned below:

Start → Control Panel → Administrative Tools → Memory Diagnostics Tool

Computer Virus

Another reason for the continuous rebooting of a computer can be a virus attack. It can be a possibility that the virus has tampered with your OS settings and system files. A particular type of computer virus, known as ‘bar311.exe’, is known to cause a frequent rebooting problem. You can detect the presence of this virus by the path mentioned below.

Start → Run → Type ‘cmd’ (without quotes) → Hit Enter

If your computer restarts, this virus is present in your system. It might have entered your system because of a weak, outdated antivirus software. You can remove the virus by upgrading to the latest version of the antivirus software, and running a complete scan on the computer. An updated antivirus program will also protect your system from any future invasion of dangerous viruses.

Overheating is another reason which can cause a computer to reboot on its own. The hard disk, and the processors are the components of a computer which are particularly prone to overheating. To address this issue, check whether the cooling system, and the power source of the computer is working properly.

These were some of the common causes that can cause a computer to reboot itself continuously. In the end, we would like to say that proper hardware maintenance and updated antivirus software can go a long way in preventing automatic rebooting and other issues in a computer.

How to Fix an ‘Invalid Partition Table’ Error

Partition tables or partition maps store information to help load the operating system into the computer. The BIOS is a firmware that stores partition tables and the associated memory data. It’s the first thing that loads when you switch on the computer. The BIOS is required to check whether the partitions are in working condition. The most common use of the BIOS is to format your system or reinstall a better operating system (OS).

So imagine how you would feel when your OS doesn’t load, and shows a message Invalid Partition Table. Partition systems of old contained the Master Boot Record, which was responsible for the booting of the system. Since Windows Vista, manufacturers have started using a new system, GUID Partition Table (GPT), which allows the computer to be split into multiple partitions, extremely useful for dual-booting systems.

An invalid partition table error occurs due to the following reasons:

– The MBR is trying to boot from some other device than the DVD-ROM, which is the first option in the boot priority order.
– When some other device is connected to the USB port, like a flash drive or an external hard disk drive (HDD).
– There is no operating system installed on the computer.

In the following sections, we shall tell you how to fix the invalid partition table error.

On Windows XP

Step 1: Analysis

– Download Hiren’s BootCD, a free bootable software that will run at the time of booting, irrespective if your operating system works or not. Burn it to a CD/DVD and insert it in the CD drive to make it run.
– Press Ctrl+Alt+Del to restart your computer.
– Press F12 to enter BIOS and enter 1st Boot Setting : CD-ROM Group. Change the booting order to reflect the changes.
– Save the changes.
– Now restart the computer once again. Select Mini Windows XP from the options when it boots.
– After the OS gets loaded, go to Start – Programs- Administrative Tools- Disk Management to see the status of each partition, i.e. C, D, and however many drives you may have. The amount of memory allocated to each partition can be seen.
– If everything’s fine, go to Windows Explorer and check C Drive to see if an OS is installed.
– If it isn’t, restart your computer once more.
– Now run the Boot CD, and go to Master Boot Record Tools – Partition Table Doctor 3.5. This is not compatible with Windows Vista, 7, and 8.
– Click on Partition Table Doctor 3.5, and make sure all data is saved, before clicking on OK.
– You should scan bad sectors, if any, with HDD Regenerator. This software shows if any sectors have become corrupted and repairs it.

Step 2: Recover Data

– To recover data from the C drive, use recovery software like EASEUS Data Recovery or GetDataBack.
– Copy-paste the files from the D drive and save this in an external hard disk drive or flash drive.

Step 3: Fix Partition Table

– Boot the CD and choose Next to go to the next menu.
– Choose MBR (Master Boot Record).
– Next, choose Partition Table Doctor from the options.
– Click on OK.
– Now the program will open up. Click on the Operations menu and click on Rebuild Partition Table, to start repairing the damage to the partition.
– Exit the program and eject the CD.
– This would have taken care of the error. Now insert a bootable CD/DVD of your respective operating system and install it again to get your system running.

On Windows Vista, 7, and 8

– Load the Windows Vista OS (or Windows 7 & 8) bootable disc, and press any key to boot from the DVD.
– Choose the language, time, and currency. Now click on Next to continue, and click on Repair Your Computer.
– When the System Recovery dialog box pops up, choose Command Prompt.
– Type bootrec.exe and press Enter. This rebuilds the partition and fixes the problem.

These are the ways to fix the partition error on your computer. For novices and beginners not comfortable working with the BIOS, it’s recommended to get the error checked by a professional.